By Schoenhagen, MD, FAHA, Paul
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Additional info for Cardiac CT Made Easy: An Introduction to Cardiovascular Multidetector Computed Tomography, Second Edition
Figure 76 Pericardial constriction A patient with a remote history of mitral valve repair with a prosthetic ring (arrow, right upper panel). Diffuse circumferential thickening of the pericardium measuring up to 5 mm. Small amount of pericardial effusion, localized predominantly over the inferior aspect of the right ventricle (arrow, lower middle panel). There is tubular deformation of the normal-sized left and right ventricles (upper left panel), consistent with pericardial constriction. qxp 52 11/8/2006 8:49 PM Page 52 CARDIAC CT MADE EASY Figure 77 Pericardial constriction, prior pericardectomy (64-slice scanner) A patient with previous history of pericardectomy.
Small- to moderate-sized circumferential pericardial effusion without evidence of tamponade. Figure 80 Pericardial tamponade A patient with recent open-heart surgery for replacement of the aortic root. Large pericardial effusion with compression of the right atrium (arrow). In addition, dilatation of the inferior vena cava. Findings consistent with tamponade. 5) can be defined in relation to adjacent structures. 5 Cardiac masses Cardiac masses can be described with regard to size, density, contrast enhancement, and spatial relationship to adjacent structures146.
Modern atherosclerosis imaging therefore evaluates overall plaque burden and plaque characteristics as predictors of future cardiovascular risk. Non-enhanced CT imaging (CT calcium scoring) allows the assessment of calcified plaque only, while contrast-enhanced CTA allows differentiation of calcified and non-calcified plaque. Calcium scoring The identification of coronary arterial calcification is a reliable sign of chronic atherosclerotic changes. Advanced, stenotic lesions causing chronic, stable angina pectoris often demonstrate dense calcifications.