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By P. Rao

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Clin Obstet Gynecol 18:41-50. Section 2 Natural History 3 Prevalence of Secundum Atrial Septal Defect and Associated Findings Mark D. Reller Oregon Health & Science University, USA 1. Introduction The goal of this chapter is to review data regarding the current prevalence estimates for secundum type atrial septal defect (ASD) and to give the reader a sense as to how these prevalence data compare relative to other common cardiac defects. This chapter will also review the current understanding of cardiac and non-cardiac findings known to be associated with secundum ASD.

HIFU is acoustic modality using ultrasound energy with cavitation and/or coagulation effect focused to operate on an internally targeted tissue without damaging overlying and/or underlying tissues. , 2004). Unlike an extensive ablation of stationary tumors, the HIFU ablation to a frequently-pulsating narrow area in the beating and tiny fetal heart requires highly accurate pinpoint delivery in real-time based on computer-aided autotracking of atrial septum.

Specifically, atrial septal defect (ASD) is a non-lethal, acyanotic lesion in which survival into adulthood with or without surgery is common place. Types of ASD and hemodynamics have been discussed elsewhere in this book. Briefly, ASD causes left to right shunting leading to right atrial and right ventricular enlargement and increased pulmonary blood flow. Heart failure is uncommon before 4th decade. Mild pulmonary arterial hypertension may occur with advancing age. However, Eisenmenger’s syndrome is rare.

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