By Michel E. Safar, Edward D. Frohlich
This ebook provides the present contemplating overseas specialists in regards to the underlying mechanisms of cardiovascular danger in addition to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of impaired huge arterial stiffness and diminished huge arterial distensibility. It additionally demonstrates the explanation for the current method of the administration and remedy of hypertensive illnesses and atherosclerosis. The specific readership comprises simple scientists in vascular body structure in addition to physicians and scientists in cardiovascular drugs, diabetes mellitus and renal ailments.
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Additional resources for Atherosclerosis, large arteries and cardiovascular risk
Izzo JL Jr: Arterial stiffness and the systolic hypertension syndrome. Curr Opin Cardiol 2004; 19:341–352. Mitchell GF, Pfeffer MA: Pulsatile hemodynamics in hypertension. Curr Opin Cardiol 1999; 14: 361–369. Mitchell GF, Parise H, Benjamin EJ, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, Vita JA, Vasan RS, Levy D: Changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection with advancing age in healthy men and women: the Framingham Heart Study. Hypertension 2004;43:1239–1245. Mitchell GF, Lacourciere Y, Arnold JM, Dunlap ME, Conlin PR, Izzo JL Jr: Changes in aortic stiffness and augmentation index after acute converting enzyme or vasopeptidase inhibition.
Blood Pressure 2005; 14:45–52. Woodman RJ, Kingwell BA, Beilin LJ, Hamilton SE, Dart AM, Watts GF: Assessment of central and peripheral arterial stiffness: studies indicating the need to use a combination of techniques. Am J Hypertens 2005;18:249–260. Lacy PS, O’Brien DG, Stanley AG, Dewar MM, Swales PP, Williams B: Increased pulse wave velocity is not associated with elevated augmentation index in patients with diabetes. J Hypertens 1937;22:1937–1944. Lemogoum D, Flores G, Van den Abeele W, Ciarka A, Leeman M, Degaute JP, van de Borne P, Van Bortel L: Validity of pulse pressure and augmentation index as surrogate measures of arterial stiffness during ␤-adrenergic stimulation.
Unlike diastolic or mean BP, systolic BP is thus not constant throughout the arterial tree. In the arm, the amplitude of the forward wave is generally much greater than the amplitude of the reflected wave, so brachial cuff systolic BP conveys information primarily about the forward wave, including PPA, but is largely blind to changes in wave reflection (fig. 3). In contrast, peak central systolic BP is the result of a different admixture of the forward and reflected pressure waves, where the pulse pressure generated by the forward pressure wave may be augmented by as much as 100% by the reflected wave.