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By Matt Grossmann

Why do Republican politicians promise to rein in executive, simply to stand repeated rebellions from Republican citizens and media critics for betraying their ideas? Why do Democratic politicians suggest an array of other rules to compare the variety in their supporters, merely to develop into mired in stark demographic divisions over factor priorities? briefly, why do the 2 events act so differently-whether within the citizens, at the crusade path, or in public office?

Asymmetric Politics deals a entire rationalization: The Republican get together is the car of an ideological flow whereas the Democratic get together is a coalition of social teams. Republican leaders prize conservatism and allure aid via pledging loyalty to vast values. Democratic leaders as an alternative search concrete govt motion, attractive to electorate' workforce identities and pursuits via endorsing particular policies.

This clean and accomplished research unearths how Democrats and Republicans imagine otherwise approximately politics, depend on targeted assets of data, argue earlier each other, and pursue divergent objectives in govt. It offers a rigorous new figuring out of latest polarization and governing disorder whereas demonstrating how longstanding gains of yank politics and public coverage replicate our uneven social gathering system.

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R ACIAL IDENTITY AND PARTY COMPOSITION Racial and ethnic minority groups are an increasingly important component of the Democratic coalition.  electorate. These trends have not resulted in overwhelming national Democratic majorities because whites have simultaneously become more likely to identify as Republicans and vote accordingly—​ though their collective partisan leaning is not as lopsided. This pattern of demographic sorting leads some Democratic-​leaning political analysts to argue that both parties are racial group coalitions, with Republicans representing a white population that harbors racial resentment and anti-​ immigrant attitudes.

Figure 2-​2 displays the distribution of ideological self-​placement on the American National Election Studies (ANES) seven-​point scale for Republicans (top) and Democrats (bottom) in 2012. The figure summarizes the distribution of ideology among all party members (black lines), among partisans who reported engaging in two or more activities in support of a candidate (gray lines), and among those who reported making political donations (marbled lines). Among both engaged citizens and the broader electorate, Republicans are strongly united by symbolic conservatism, while Democrats array themselves along a wider ideological spectrum.

Janet Box-​Steffensmeier compiled data on macro-​ideology. The authors updated the time series with (unadjusted) data from Gallup polls after 1997. com/​site/​donaldpgreen/​replication. 5 points—​about one-​fourth—​a nd never recovered… . That movement would have been huge had it been temporary. 16 The time series presented in Figure 2-​1 confirms this decline in liberal self-​identification during the 1960s but also finds thermostatic responsiveness to the direction of national policy: liberals made relative gains during the Republican presidencies of Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan, while conservatives became more numerous during the Jimmy Carter and first Bill Clinton administrations; there has also been a more recent trend toward greater relative liberalism.

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