By Sam Katz
The Lebanese Civil battle of 1975-76 triggered 80,000 useless and completely cut up the rustic alongside factional traces. An predicted 50 varied militias got here into life, and acts of violence have been either person and collective. in the middle of this explosive surroundings, cross-border clash among Israel and Lebanon intensified, culminating in Operation Peace for Galilee - the invasion of Lebanon. This publication deals a daily account of the invasion and the next siege of Beirut, an operation that ended in either the PLO and Israel claiming victory. various pictures and color plates painting the uniforms and kit of the Israeli, Palestinian and Multi-National forces.
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Extra resources for Armies in Lebanon 1982-84 (Men-at-Arms, Volume 165)
But no sooner had Bonaparte married ~larie·Louise than the mistruslful Alexander became suspicious ofFraneoAustrian accord. And, because he feared disscnsion among his Polish subjects, he had become _.. :\'apolcon on the Russian fronlier. Economically Russia was the loser by the new anli-Brilish alliance and thc continental blockade, since the main markct for Russian goods was in Brilain; the loss ofcustoms rcvenues to the gO\'crnment contributed lO the sleady depreciation of the currency. At the end of 1810 St Petersburg, in a fit of pique against the French, replied by the imposition of a heavy tax on the imporullion by land of luxury goods, which in fact were mainly of French origin.
1. -'''> . ' BLACK seA 0 ;1 SPAIN o • .. 4 UolPIR( other aim. Napoleon advanced from the Rhine at the head of a large army and by his rapidity of movemcnt outmana:uvrcd Archdukc Charles. Vicnna was abandoned. Two cngagements at Aspern and Essling camc as an unpleasant surprisc to the French, and Napolcon fell back to the island of Lobau. Charles had at his disposal about 200,000 men, of which 36,000 were horse and 23,000 light infantry Jager, and 760 guns. His ncwly reformed forces werc organized on the Frcnch model and atc on the French requisition systcm.
Nilorm, c. 1809 Corporal of Artillery winter field service order, c. UIlDler field service uniform, c. nNfHo The Archduke Charles's reforms covercd both Ihe infantry and the cavalry and in particular the application of their taClics. But il was in Ihe re· organization of the anillery Ihal he was most concerned. Charles had learned much from the French and he determined to concentrate Ihe con· trol of the artillery at the highest possible le\'cl. The line guns, previously decentralized to infantry, disappeared in accordance with the French practice (although Bonapane was in fact to restore them in 180g), and the Auslrian artillery was built up as an indcpendclll supporting arm.