By Raphael A. Finkel
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Extra info for An Operating Systems Vade Mecum
1) Use RR, but let the quantum depend on the external priority of the process. That is, allow larger quanta for processes run for a user willing to pay a premium for this service. (2) The Worst Service Next (WSN) method is a generalization of many others. After each quantum, compute for each process how much it has suffered so far. Suffering is an arbitrarily complex figure arrived at by crediting the process for how much it has had to wait, how many times it has been preempted, how much its user is paying in premiums, and how urgent it is.
6 shows that the missed time is very small (on the order of one quantum) for very short processes and that the missed time rises steadily as processes become longer. Under PS, which is a limiting case of RR, we have the following service measures: t T (t ) = ❚✂❚●❚●❚ 1−ρ 1 P () = ❯✂❯●❯●❯ 1−ρ The second formula agrees with our observation that the penalty ratio has the value 5, independent of t . 3 Shortest process next (SPN) We have seen that RR improves the response ratio for short processes but that it requires preemption to do so.
The trick is to set q small enough so that RR is fair but high enough so that kernel time is reasonable. 8 shows how RR schedules our sample processes for both q = 1 and q = 4. If a process finishes during its quantum, another process is started immediately and is given a full quantum. Newly arrived processes are put at the end of the ready list. If a process arrives at the same time as a quantum finishes, we assume that the arrival occurs slightly before the quantum actually expires. 8 RR Schedule The statistics for RR are therefore as follows.