By Ale Erjavec
Contributors. John E. Bowlt, Sascha Bru, Ales Erjavec, Tyrus Miller, Raymond Spiteri, Miško Šuvakovic
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Bürger, Theory of the Avant-Â�Garde, 49. In his 1974 study, Bürger introduces the concept of “historical” avant-Â�gardes, which encompasses both artistic and aesthetic avant-Â�gardes. He finds the notion applicable “primarily to Dadaism and early Surrealism,” to the “Russian avant-Â�garde after the October revolution,” and “with certain limitations” also to “Italian Futurism and German Expressionism” (109n4). While he admits that cubism “does not share with historical avant-Â�garde movements . .
Perhaps most importantly, in Italy Benedetto Croce’s Estetica come scienzia dell’espressione e lin24 Sascha Bru guistica generale (1902) quite radically broke with previous approaches to the ugly by stating that in the aesthetic process of expression or creation the ugliness/beauty opposition simply had to be bracketed. Whatever means an artist or writer draws on in the act of creation is (and remains) aesthetic, Croce’s expressivist theory implied. 19 Quite the opposite: like their modern predecessors, futurists continued to work with the opposition between the ugly and beauty, trying to domesticate the former within the latter.
Gray, The Russian Experiment, 226. 28. Buchloh, “From Faktura to Factography, ” 93. 29. Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism, 14. 30. Coffey, How a Revolutionary Art Became Official Culture, 1. 31. See Poggioli, The Theory of the Avant-Â�Garde, 96. 32. Poggioli, The Theory of the Avant-Â�Garde, 96. 33. Charles Taylor, Modern Social Imaginaries, 25. 34. Miller, Singular Examples, 3–14. 35. Schiller, On the Aesthetic Education of Man, 219. 36. Eda Čufer and irwin, “nsk State in Time” (1992), in Hoptman and Pospiszyl, Primary Documents, 301.